Prisoners of Geography- book review

We usually think of geography as being about mountains, rivers and seas, but geography is also a major factor in how large or wealthy or powerful countries have become. Prisoners of Geography- Ten Maps That Tell You Everything You Need to Know About Global Politics uses geography in the form of maps to explain ten large countries and continents including the US, China, Russia, Europe, Africa, and even the Arctic. The author, longtime foreign correspondent Tim Marshall, utilizes his ample experience to write a compelling book that combines geography with history and international affairs.

Starting with Russia, Marshall points out how the world’s largest country both benefits and is constrained by geography including plains to the west, limited access to oceans, and a vast resource-rich eastern region Siberia. The western plains is Russia’s most vulnerable area, being where invading armies from Europe such as the Nazis and Napoleon’s Grand Army have flowed through. As such, that is why it worries a lot about NATO expanding eastwards and specifically about the Ukraine.

Meanwhile, the US status as the world’s superpower was aided by perhaps the most favorable geographic conditions such as large coasts facing the Pacific and Atlantic, a large interior, and the world’s longest network of navigable rivers such as the Mississippi. The latter might not be too well-known, but navigable rivers facilitate significant trade as goods can be easily and cheaply moved by ships. Conversely, Marshall points out, the lack of this can hinder countries and continents such as Africa and South America. The latter’s interior also has a lot of mountains such as the Andes range, that prevents easy rail and riverine connectivity. If you’re wondering about the Nile and Amazon, those are both mighty rivers but not conducive to large cargo-carrying ships.

Europe was able to prosper greatly during the Middle Ages because of its large rivers like the Rhine and Danube which facilitated trade and commerce. However, not all European countries benefited from this. For example, Spain’s hilly interior and lack of large rivers meant it couldn’t develop as quickly as its northern neighbor France, which partly explains why Spain didn’t become wealthier than France.

Prisoners of Geography is one of the most fascinating non-fiction books I’ve ever read. It is a fun read that also makes global affairs a little more understandable and the world a little less complicated.

Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains- book review

Nestled in the deep northeastern corner of India lies Arunanchal Pradesh, the “land of the dawn-lit mountains,” and one of the least explored parts of the country. Antonia Bolingbroke-Kent went on an epic motorcycle journey into the state where she explored thick jungles and mountains, met and stayed with remote tribes and gained insight and experience into their fading traditions and customs. Land of the Dawn-Lit Mountains- A Journey across Arunanchal Pradesh – India’s Forgotten Frontier is the result of Bolingbroke-Kent’s intrepid journey.

Arunachal Pradesh is one of India’s “Seven Sisters,” the group of seven northeastern states that border China and Myanmar and are connected to the rest of India by a narrow strip of land, the 20-40 km wide Siliguri Corridor. The entire region is still quite isolated and visited by few people, however Arunachal Pradesh is very remote, with visitors needing to apply for a government permit to enter. Given that the state borders Tibet, it is also a very strategic border region for India, due to its vulnerability to invasion from China, which actually claims the province as its own territory.

Bolingbrooke-Kent set out in a counter-clockwise journey from neighboring Assam, looping into Arunachal Pradesh and riding from east to west. Along the way, she stops at several points, sometimes even venturing for days deep into the interior and far borders of Arunachal Pradesh while leaving behind her motorcycle. She meets tribal elders, shamans and even kings, observing ceremonies and festivals and even mithun (cattle) sacrifices. The tribes include fearsome warriors with a historic reputation as headhunters, nomads, and former Tibetan vassals residing around the old mountain fortress of Tawang. Indeed, Arunachal Pradesh’s history includes past interaction with Tibet when it was an independent entity.

The book also shows serious challenges faced by the tribes. It is clear that modern life is gradually eroding a lot of the tribal traditions, especially as young people are lured by education and jobs in big cities. There is also a fair bit of ethnic tension between tribal people and Indians from outside the state, who have moved into Arunachal Pradesh to settle or work. The tribal people are ethnically and culturally different from most Indians, with some of them having more in common with Myanmar, where their ancestors came from.

Land of the Dawn-lit Mountains is a fascinating, moving, and entertaining account of one of Asia’s most unknown remote regions.

Saladin- book review

I’ve always been fascinated by Saladin, the great military leader of the Muslim Arabs or Saracens who fought and won victories against Western Crusaders in the 12th century. His victories culminated in him capturing Jerusalem from the Crusaders, but he was also lauded for his generosity and integrity. I was eager to read more about Saladin’s life and John Man’s Saladin – the Life, the Legend and the Islamic Empire didn’t disappoint.

I first heard about Saladin when reading about the Second Crusade and the exploits of the English King Richard I or “Lionheart”, himself another famous military leader, who led the Crusaders. While Richard I was able to achieve some success, he was unable to recapture Jerusalem from Saladin, who had captured it earlier. Richard I negotiated a settlement with Saladin in 1192 and left the Middle East to return to Europe, while Saladin himself would pass away the following year. However, I didn’t know anything about Saladin’s life before that point, when he was in charge of the Arabs and hailed as the savior of Islam.

Saladin was actually a Kurd born in Tikrit, a city in what is now Iraq, and his father was a noted military leader. At that time, the Middle East was divided into Muslim and Christian territories, including several major city states like Jerusalem and Acre. Held by lords and knights who came over from Europe, and reinforced by Crusaders drawn by the goal of taking the “Holy Land” (and pillage) from the Muslims, the Christian city states constantly fought the Muslims, themselves divided into different factions like the Abbasids and Fatimids.

While Saladin had a strong mentor, he reached a point where he surpassed him. He wasn’t above committing brutal acts like ordering the execution of enemies after taking Cairo from a rival Muslim faction, but once firmly in power, he abstained from further killings. He won battles against the Franks, including the Battle of Hattin, where he captured several Christian leaders including the then King of Jerusalem. Also, after taking Jerusalem (my favorite movie Kingdom of Heaven focuses on this event), he prevented mass slaughter and allowed Christians and Jewish residents to go free after paying ransom.

John Man is a famous historian and prolific author who has written numerous books about Genghis Khan, the Mongols, Attila and ancient China. However, this was the first time I’d ever read his work. He writes in a very contemporary style, almost conversational, so much so that the book reads less like history and almost like a novel. Sometimes I didn’t quite enjoy it because it seemed a little simple, but overall Saladin was an enjoyable and fascinating read.

Deep Work- book review

We live in a world full of distractions, whether it be TV, the internet, or social media. It can be impossible to avoid distractions given the ubiquity of smartphones and social media. This obviously affects us in several ways, from our daily lives to our work. Deep Work- Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted Work explains how people can use “deep work” to cope with distractions and become more efficient and productive.

“Deep work” is about being totally focused on your work for a long period of time, whether it be an hour or a day. This means blocking off distractions and having a good environment to work. As author Cal Newport emphasizes, it is not about spending more time doing more work, but about working more efficiently so that you can use your time more wisely, get off work on time and avoid overtime. Newport also takes on the broader issue of tacking popular assumptions regarding work and technology.

Deep work can lead to not just better efficiency, but also greater quality of work. Newport’s points are very appealing though the challenge, as with many types of self-help advice, is to actually be able to implement his suggestions. For instance, Newport does not use social media at all, though he does have a popular blog, and for a long time, he did not own a smartphone. I believe this would be hard for many of us, including myself. Despite this, the book is straightforward, clear, and easy to follow.

Not surprisingly, Newport critiques the ubiquitous role of the Internet and technology in our lives, bringing up an argument by academic and theorist Neil Postman that people automatically assume that anything high-tech is good without debating the benefits and drawbacks. Given Postman, who died in 2003, made this point in the early 1990s, it seems he was well ahead of his time. All this makes “deep work” more difficult to do.

To engage in “deep work,” Newport makes some really great suggestions such as:
-“embrace boredom,” as this enables you to better resist the temptation of always checking social media and seeking constant gratification. This then helps you become more contemplative and more likely to come up with deeper thoughts and ideas.
– people have finite attention, which can be depleted by walking through crowds or dealing with constant distractions. As such, you have less mental energy to think and concentrate. Obviously living in crowded cities (I do find that true sometimes, especially when I was working in Hong Kong) can have this effect, so one remedy is to spend more time in nature to improve your ability to concentrate.
– put more work into your leisure time, which sounds a little counter-intuitive, except it’s not. For instance, sometimes when we are idle but have nothing to do, it’s easy to feel bored which then makes us turn to social media or time-wasting internet (I could attest to this). By planning ahead in choosing things to do, you can avoid being idle.

There is a long section on blocking off or screening emails, which for most people, is one of the biggest part of work. The endgoal is to ensure you don’t need to respond to every email you get (not feasible for some of us) as well as to get people to be more upfront about what they want (definitely desirable).

Deep Work is a fascinating book that makes convincing arguments on the importance of “deep work” and which can change our perspectives on work and productivity.

Blood and Silk- book review

Southeast Asia is a region that’s often linked with travel and economic growth, but Blood and Silk- Power and Conflict in Modern Southeast Asia takes readers on a different tour covering political, religious, and social turmoil. Despite the optimistic economic forecasts and the sunny image of countries like Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia as places to travel, eat and party; the region is beset with significant problems that can threaten to unravel significantly in the future.

Author Michael Vatikiotis, a mediator and a former editor of the Far East Economic Review with decades of experience in SE Asia, has written a compelling book about these political and religious tensions as well as societal cleavages. From the ongoing military junta rule in Thailand to corrupt and feudal politics in Philippines to gradual radicalization of Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia, almost all countries in SE Asia suffer serious problems.

The book first looks at how power is manifested throughout the region, whether through military junta rule or democratically elected governments. This is the more fascinating part of the book as Vatikiotis delves into the politics of countries like Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand to provide a more in-depth look at how those countries are run. We get detailed riveting and sometimes bloody accounts of riots, insurrections, coups, and insurgencies, some of which was hardly covered by international media.

Vatikiotis makes a really interesting point about the issue with pluralism in countries like Myanmar and Malaysia. These countries have several ethnic groups who live alongside each other but only really mix in “the marketplace in buying and selling,” according to a former British colonial officer. This was perpetuated by the colonizing British to their benefit and the result was enforced racial division and political conflict after independence. Personally I think this is true in a broader sense when looking at many Asian countries, but I won’t digress. For Myanmar and its Rohingya crisis (in which the Rohingya minority have been killed and forced out by the Burmese army, a move that is actually popular within the country), Vatikiotis sees this as a factor.

The second and final part of the book looks at the conflicts in various countries. However, while making very sound points, this part is more academic and rhetorical than the first part, which makes it less interesting. There are interesting chapters on the growing role of China as a partner and threat, as well as Islamic fundamentalism which has afflicted politics, such as the downfall of Jakarta’s then-mayor in 2017 on blasphemy charges for allegedly insulting Islam, and caused terrorist attacks such as in Indonesia and Thailand.

Vatikiotis believes that while Southeast Asia has undoubtedly prospered economically, at some point this will be inadequate to cover up the socioeconomic and political problems and conflicts. Ultimately, Blood and Silk is a forceful piece of work that provides readers a more in-depth look into a very fascinating region that is not as idyllic as it sometimes appears.

Tools of Titans- book review

Written by the same guy who wrote The Four-Hour Workweek, Tools of Titans is a fascinating collection of inspirational tips and helpful advice from over 200 entrepreneurs, writers, artists, and other successful people.  The book is massive, with over 650 pages packed with interviews and profiles of, as the book’s sub-title states, “billionaires, icons, and world-class performers.”

Tools of Titans is divided into three parts – the first focuses on health, exercise and nutrition; the second is on work and productivity; and the final part is on life tips. In addition, Tim Ferriss also sprinkles chapters of his own insights and tips for things like dealing with critics, creating a podcast, investment, and work-outs. For me, the second and third parts were the most interesting and helpful. Ferriss interviews writers, artists, entrepreneurs, fitness experts, an ex-Navy Seal and even a yoga instructor. The sheer number and scope of people profiled and the advice given means readers will definitely something useful and applicable for their own lives.

Among the tips I found interesting were come up with 10 ideas a day (writer and blogger James Altucher), suffer a little regularly and you cease to suffer (Tim Ferriss advises based on the philosopher Seneca’s teachings), and listen to a song or album you like repeatedly while working to improve your focus and awareness (which Tim Ferriss points out that some successful people do). From Nicholas Nassim Taleb, getting everyone to like you is a sign of mediocrity and it is better to be care about the many who would love your work than the few who hate it. Venture capitalist and a math research fellow at Oxford Eric Weinstein says something similar in that people (like writers, entrepreneurs, and artists) should strive to be known and respected by 2,000-3,000 people rather than be widely famous because this then gives one the freedom to do what he wants.

One especially meaningful piece of advice is from tech CEO and investor Naval Ravikant who says that in any situation in life, you have 3 options: change it, leave it, or accept it. It sounds deceptively simple but I’d never thought of that and there are a few instances in my life I should have applied this.

Tools of Titans is both fascinating and helpful, and will also give you lots of ideas to boost your work, health and lifestyle.