Being original is seen as highly valued in many areas in life, including work, business and arts, but it is not easy to attain. Some people are born with highly original and innovative minds, but the rest of us need to develop and foster originality. Originals- How Non-Confirmists Move the World aims to help readers do this with interesting lessons, insights and arguments.
Originals is a highly informative book, but also surprising as author Adam Grant makes arguments that contradict some pieces of conventional wisdom. For instance, at work, we always hear that instead of pointing out problems, we need to also have solutions (obviously managers love this suggestion), but Grant says that this can make people unwilling to speak up and as such, problems can be overlooked or ignored. As such, people should be allowed to make critiques freely.
Risk-taking is often praised and even encouraged, so you might think this is a key part of originality, but not so fast, says Grant. Keep your day-job while pursuing your dreams, like what author Stephen King and musician John Legend did initially before they really hit it big; and balance risks you do take in one area with caution in others, like a stock portfolio, for instance. To be honest, Grant’s advice seems more pragmatic than original as security seems to be the priority for him.
A lot of readers will take heart from the chapter on procrastination and companies not rushing into new markets. We often hear that procrastination is bad, but Grant says while leaving things to the last minute might hamper productivity, it might be good for creativity as it allows for flexibility and adaptability. Another instance of first being considered best is that companies that come out with products first always get lauded as innovators and supposedly have the first-mover advantage. Grant argues that these companies often get overtaken by competitors who wait and come out with better products. If anything, first-movers tend to be driven by impulsiveness which brings on more risk, says Grant. Grant also says civil movements and ideas failed because they were “ahead of their time” though he doesn’t give much evidence. Meanwhile, assigning somebody to be a “devil’s advocate” is less effective than if somebody was genuinely critical.
Another interesting chapter is about when to trust your intuition. According to Grant, intuition is dependable only when used in a familiar environment or situation but not in situations where conditions are always changing or a surprise. As such, you should trust your intuition in situations you are familiar with, but use more caution and thinking for unfamiliar circumstances. Hence doctors can trust their intuition when assessing cases they have encountered numerous times, but political and economic “experts” always seem to get things wrong.
One really surprising chapter is the one on the influence of birth order and parenting on originality. Grant finds that last-born children often turn out to be more creative and rebellious than their eldest siblings, who are more inclined to excel in traditional pursuits and become business and government leaders. Grant uses charts and stats showing that comedians and baseball steals leaders (steals are a sign of more risk-taking) are often the youngest in their families while a study showed that the largest percentage of CEOs were firstborn. In a somewhat vague link, Grant says parenting plays a key role such as using lessons and not orders to teach children to do the right thing.
Grant specifically praises investment company Bridgewater, where the founder and CEO Ray Danzig allows himself to be criticized publicly and harshly by subordinates. This is part of the company culture, based on over 200 principles that Danzig came up with. Employees are encouraged to publicly criticize their colleagues; all meetings are recorded; and all employees have scores published on a company-wide ratings board.
In the end, Grant lists a series of rules and suggestions including to procrastinate strategically, to back up your opinions, come up with more ideas than usual, and to present your ideas to disagreeable people who can challenge it earnestly. Originals might veer towards pragmatism in a few areas, but it provides a lot of useful ideas that might change your mind about common situations and behaviors, which would be the first step in becoming more “original.”